Monday, May 7, 2018

17 Benefits of Rhizobium leguminosarum for Agriculture


7 Benefits of Rhizobium leguminosarum for Crops:

Bacteria agent, or also called biological agent, and its existence have been used to our advantages in many life fields such as agriculture, livestock, fishery, food managing, industry, mining, medical, and so on.

In agriculture, utilization of bacteria is widely used, for example: Bacillus thrungiensis for pest control; Rhizobium leguminosarum to bind free Nitrogen (N2) in the air by forming symbiotic relationship with legume plants or leguminoceae (nuts).

Rhizobium leguminosarum
Legume

Conserving crop land by planting legume plants.

Here are more benefits and utilization of Rhizobium leguminosarum bacteria in agriculture:
1.       Useful for fertilizing soil for crops.
2.       Planting legume and nut plants once in a while in between crops can make the soil fertile again.
3.       Making the soil looser and finer, suitable for planting various crops.
4.       Binding free Nitrogen in the air and forming symbiotic relationship with legume or nuts plants’ root nodules, for example peanuts, peas, long beans, etc.
5.       Adding Nitrogen in soil to make it more fertile. It is known that Nitrogen is an important nutrient needed for plant growth and development, reproduction, and enzyme and hormone formation.
6.       Self-fertilizing by adding Nitrogen substances that will then be changed into Nitrate and Nitrite compounds that are useful for crops.
7.       As a crop land conserving agent to keep the soil in its optimum pH and temperature, and to prevent the decrease of soil quality in nutrient and fertility.
So those are the seven benefits of Rhizobium bacteria in agriculture. I hope this article has been useful for you.


10 Top Coffee Producer Countries Worldwide (2018)


Do you know, 10 Top Coffee Producer Countries Worldwide (2018)?

Who doesn’t know coffee? Coffee is one of the most popular drinks in the world. This drink is made from Coffea sp. extract and was first made popular by Arabians then spread through the world by the Europeans. Today, there are more than 50 coffee producer countries in the world.

International Coffee Organization notes annual coffee production. We have four active kinds of coffee in the market today which are Arabica, robusta, liberica, and excelsa. About 99% of those are Arabica and robusta with 1% liberica and excelsa. Liberica and Excelsa have very low numbers so they are often ignored.

10 Top Coffee Producer Countries Worldwide


Coffee has been traded globally since the 17th century. In the past, this commodity was placed second after oil in the most massive trade in the world. Even though that’s not the thing now, coffee is still an important agriculture commodity. Here are the top ten countries that produce coffee in 2017:

1.     Brazil
Brazil has been the world’s biggest coffee producer in the world since 1830. To this day, Brazil’s export market for coffee accumulated to be the 30% of the total coffee trade globally. Brazil is also the biggest Arabica coffee producer with 80% of coffee produced in Brazil being Arabica. In 2015/2016, Brazil produced 2.9 million tons of coffee, which is lower than the previous year’s 3 million tons.

2.     Vietnam
Vietnam can be considered a new player in the coffee world but they’re already dominating at the second place. Coffee was brought to Vietnam by the French in the 19th century. Coffee started to thrive in Vietnam after the end of the war in 1975 and peaked in the 1990s with 20-30% growth each year. The most produced coffee in Vietnam is robusta thus making Vietnam the world’s biggest robusta coffee producer. In 2015/2016, Vietnam produced 1.65 million tons of coffee beans, an improvement from the previous year’s 1.59 million tons.

3.     Colombia
Coffee has flourished in Colombia since 1790 after being brought by European missionaries. Colombia has only started to export coffee in 1835 and has been one of the most important agriculture commodities in Colombia. In 2015, Colombia produced 840 thousand tons of coffee beans compared to the previous year’s 799 thousand tons.

4.     Indonesia
In the 17th century, Indonesia was the world’s biggest coffee producer. Famous with its Java Coffee, coffee came into Indonesia brought by the Dutch colonialists in 1669. The first generation of coffee in Indonesia was Arabica. Because of some disease attacks, it then changed to liberica then changed to robusta. To this day, robusta coffee makes up to 83% of total coffee production in Indonesia. In 2015/2016, Indonesia produced 691 thousand tons of coffee beans, an improvement from last year’s 660 thousand tons.

5.     Ethiopia
Ethiopia is the origin country of Arabica coffee which then popularized by the Arabian traders. Coffee had been Ethiopia’s most important commodity for centuries. In 2015, Ethiopia produced 402 thousand tons of coffee beans.

6.     India
Coffee first came into India in 1695 through spiritual travelers who came after their hajj in Mecca and Medina. This plant was developed in Chickmaglur, a mountain environment in Mysor. In 1840, the English also started their coffee plantations in India. 92% of India’s coffee production is centered in three provinces: Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamilnadu. Just like in Indonesia, India started off having Arabica coffee as their main production but now, robusta coffee dominates at 64%. In 2015/2016, India produced 350 thousand tons of coffee beans.

7.     Honduras
Coffee had started to be developed in Honduras in 1804 from plants in the Caribbean. The starter seed in the Carribean was suspected to be from coffee plants in Martinique Island that was brought by the French from Netherlands. Until the 20th century, the most important agriculture commodity in Honduras had been bananas. In the 21st century, it’s now coffee. In 2015/2-16, Honduras produced 324 thousand tons of coffee beans.

8.     Uganda
Uganda is the original habitat for robusta coffee. Other types of coffee like the Arabica have only been introduced in the 1990s. Coffee has been one of Uganda’s most important agriculture commodities since the 1980s. In 2015/2016, Uganda produced 240 thousand tons of coffee beans, a vast improvement from previous year’s 226.4 thousand tons.

9.     Guatemala
Coffee started to develop in Guatemala in the 1850s. This commodity then quickly became guatemala’s export primadonna. More than 60% of coffee produced in Guatemala is for export purposes. In 2013, there was a disease attack for coffee plants in Guatemala causing destroyed and damaged 70-90% of coffee plants. In 2015/2016, Guatemala produced 198.6 thousand tons of coffee beans.

10. Peru
Last year, peru wasn’t in the top ten of world’s coffee producers but this year, peru got in and mexico got out of the list. In 2015/2016, peru produced 198 thousand tons of coffee beans, a vast improvement from previous year’s 173 thousand tons.


Rainy Season and Cacao Trees


Cacao trees that have borne fruits need extra attention, especially during rainy season. In rainy season, growth of bacteria, fungus, and other diseases is high and cacao trees are really sensitive to high precipitation. Problems faced by cacao trees in rainy season are fruit abscission and fruit rotting.

Cacao tree and its fruits
Cacao tree and its fruits

Fruit rotting of cacao trees happen a lot in rainy season. The main characteristic is the dark brown specks on rinds. Those specks can spread to all surface until the seeds of the fruits rot too.

Farmers find it hard to prevent this problem from happening. The conventional method done by most farmers is to get rid off and burn the cacao fruit that is identified as the source of the disease. Others bury the problematic fruit instead.

Another way to prevent rotting of your cacao fruits is to keep the cleanliness of the area and pay extra attention to the fruits nearing the harvest time. Also read: How to Pick, Pare, and Process Cacao.


Pest Management of Cocoa Pod Borer in Agriculture


Pest Management of Cocoa Pod Borer are: 

The Cocoa Pod Borer, or is often named the CPB is one of the most common pests in cocoa cultivation. These pests attack fruit and cause a yield decline in both quantity and quality.

It is found at nearly all territory of cocoa cultivation in Indonesia. The scientific name of this pest is Conophomorpa cramerella.

Pest Management of Cocoa Pod Borer


Cocoa Pod Borer attacks frequently have a major impact to cocoa cultivation business. It could decrease the productivity of up to 80%. Hence, the introduction of its life cycle, its symptoms of the attack and the pest control techniques need to be comprehended to get rid of great losses.

The Life Cycle of Cocoa Pod Borer Pest

 

The Cocoa Pod Borer is the insect with complete metamorphosis. Its  life cycle starts from the egg turning into a larvae. From larvae turns into imago (adult insects) which in turn will breed to begin a new life cycle. Time required to complete one cycle is less than 35 days.

Female Imago of cocoa pod borer’s life span is 5-7 days. During this period it could lay 100 – 200 eggs. The pests lay their eggs on the surface of cocoa fruit aged 3 – 4 months.

In less than 7 days, the eggs hatch and the  larvae then bore the skin and get into the  cocoa fruit. These larvae grow up in the fruit, devour the flesh of the fruit and the placenta which wrap cocoa beans

After 14 days inhabiting the cocoa pod, the fully grown larvae will bore out of the fruit. Then down to the ground to find the dried leaves that will be used as a medium  to pupate. After 7 days pupating, the insect then  turns into imago. Imago flies, mates, and lay their the eggs on the pod.

Attack symptoms

 

Cocoa borer pod moth attacks can be recognized from the fruit skin color. It changes into yellow – green striped or it appears like prematurely mature . When you open it, you will find it blackish brown inside.

On The afflicted fruit skin you might also find a black line where the moth once bored. The seeds of the affected fruit are usually small and stick one to another. This seed is difficult to extrude because they are firmly attached to the fruit skin. The seeds of the affected pod are generally posses a low fat content so that decrease their selling price.

Cocoa Pod Borer moth Control


The cocoa pod borer moth might be a significant threat toward cocoa cultivation survival if it is not seriously managed. Therefore a thorough understanding about various techniques of pest control is non-negotiable  required  by the farmers to minimize the losses incurred due to this insect.

Generally speaking, CPB pest control of can be done by technical culture, biological, and chemical techniques

Technical Culture

CPB pest control can be done by applying the cultivation techniques that suppresses the existence of this pest in the area for planting the most. Cultivation techniques in which  includes the selection of cocoa clones, selection of type of shade tree , pruning, pod-sleeving with plastic bag, fertilization, frequent harvesting and sanitation.

·        Clone selection is the initial stage in the integrated pest control technique. By planting superior resistance to CPB pests clones of cocoa such as  ICCRI 7 and Sulawesi 3, it is expected that the growing plant will not get easily  affected by this pest.

·        The shade tree selection is one of the important things to note in the cultivation of cocoa. Wrong decision on selecting  the species for shade tree  can result in increasing of the CPB attack intensity. The use of the shade tree which are  the host plants for pests such as rambutan , mata kucing, pulasan, kasai, cola, namnam, and langsat is best avoided because it can significantly increase  the  Cocoa Pod Borer pest population in cocoa planting area.

·        Pod- Sleeving is the treatment of giving the cocoa pod sheath pest penggerek imago in order that the imago of cocoa pod borer moth can not lay its eggs on the surface of the fruit. The sleeve is  clear plastic sheath tied on the fruit since it is still small in  size(measuring a length of 8 – 12 cm). The plastic used for pod-sleeving is  30 x 15 cm at least. To prevent over moist inside the sheath, you have to hollow out the downward edge of the sheath.

·        Regular pruning is important to be done  to keep the field humidity. The over humid field will allow the cocoa pod borer to reproduce more massively .Pruning is done by removing the branches or twigs of cocoa that overlap  one to another. reduces the circumference of the shade tree so that  the sunlight can reach the field.

·        Balanced fertilizing is done to helps plants  grow and enhance the immune system of the plant.  the precise fertilization dosage, time, type, and procedure will eventually bust  the plant  to be more robust against this pest attacks.

·        Frequent Harvest and sanitation are done to cut off the life cycle of Cocoa Pod Borer moth. The eggs and larvae of insects found in the fruit will also be destroyed  when we conduct harvest as frequent as possible. Field sanitation will cut off the life cycle of the pest at the pupa stage.

Biological Control

Cocoa Pod Borer moth control can biologically done by releasing their natural enemies from either the predator or parasitoid. Predators of this pest are black Ant (Dolichoderus long), weaver Ant  (Oesophylla smaragdina), and spiders (Arachnida). While the parasitoid, among others are Gorypus spp., Paraphylax spp., Ceraphron spp., Phaenocarpa spp., Beauveria bassiana, fungus and Trichogrammatoideabactreafumata.

Chemical control

The chemical control of Cocoa Pod Borer pests  is done  when  the intensity of the attack in the field is high. Chemical control should be done after the technical culture  control techniques and the biological control have already done. The chemical control of  Cocoa Pod Borer pests can be done with contact or systemic insecticide applications of active ingredients such as Propoxar 0.1% and Deltametrin 0.0015%. —

Reference:

     1.     Elna Karmawati, dkk. 2010. Budidaya dan Pasca Panen Kakao. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan.
2.     Firdausil AB, Nasriati, A. Yani. 2008. Teknologi Budidaya Kakao. Balai Besar Pengkajian dan Pengembangan TeknologiPertanian.
3.     Hatta Sunanto. 1994. Cokelat, Pengolahan Hasil dan Aspek Ekonominya. Kanisius.
4.     Rijadi Subiantoro. 2009. Hama Penting pada Tanaman Kakao. Politeknik Negeri Lampung.